ATC categoryCardiology, angiology
ATC subcategoryCalcium channels blockers
Each tablet contains:
active ingredient: amlodipine (as besylate)–5 mg;
excipients: calcium phosphate dibasic, microcrystalline cellulose (avicel), sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate.
White or off white biconvex scored tablets.
3-O-ethyl 5-O-methyl 2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate.
Calcium channel blockers, selective calcium channel blockers with mainly vascular effects. C08CA01
Chronic stable angina pectoris
Vasospastic (Prinzmetal’s) angina.
Posology and method of administration
For both hypertension and angina the usual initial dose is 5 mg Amlodipine once daily which may be increased to a maximum dose of 10 mg depending on the individual patient’s response.
In hypertensive patients, Amlodipine has been used in combination with a thiazide diuretic, alpha blocker, beta blocker, or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. For angina, Amlodipine may be used as monotherapy or in combination with other antianginal medicinal products in patients with angina that is refractory to nitrates and/or to adequate doses of beta blockers.
No dose adjustment of Amlodipine is required upon concomitant administration of thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Amlodipine used at similar doses in elderly or younger patients is equally well tolerated. Normal dosage regimens are recommended in the elderly, but increase of the dosage should take place with care (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).
Patients with hepatic impairment
Dosage recommendations have not been established in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment; therefore dose selection should be cautious and should start at the lower end of the dosing range (see sections 4.4 and 5.2). The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine have not been studied in severe hepatic impairment. Amlodipine should be initiated at the lowest dose and titrated slowly in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
Patients with renal impairment
Changes in amlodipine plasma concentrations are not correlated with degree of renal impairment, therefore the normal dosage is recommended. Amlodipine is not dialysable.
Children and adolescents with hypertension from 6 years to 17 years of age.
The recommended antihypertensive oral dose in paediatric patients ages 6-17 years is 2.5 mg once daily as a starting dose, up-titrated to 5 mg once daily if blood pressure goal is not achieved after 4 weeks. Doses in excess of 5 mg daily have not been studied in paediatric patients (see sections 5.1 and 5.2).
Children under 6 years old
No data are available.
Method of administration
Tablet for oral administration.
The safety and efficacy of amlodipine in hypertensive crisis has not been established.
Patients with cardiac failure
Effects of other medicinal products on amlodipine
Administration of amlodipine with grapefruit or grapefruit juice is not recommended as bioavailability may be increased in some patients resulting in increased blood pressure lowering effects.
Effects of amlodipine on other medicinal products
Summary of the safety profile:
The most commonly reported adverse reactions during treatment are somnolence, dizziness, headache, palpitations, flushing, abdominal pain, nausea, ankle swelling, oedema and fatigue.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
The following adverse reactions have been observed and reported during treatment with amlodipine with the following frequencies: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000).
Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
*mostly consistent with cholestasis
Exceptional cases of extrapyramidal syndrome have been reported.
In humans experience with intentional overdose is limited.
Available data suggest that gross overdosage could result in excessive peripheral vasodilatation and possibly reflex tachycardia. Marked and probably prolonged systemic hypotension up to and including shock with fatal outcome have been reported.
Clinically significant hypotension due to amlodipine overdosage calls for active cardiovascular support including frequent monitoring of cardiac and respiratory function, elevation of extremities and attention to circulating fluid volume and urine output.
A vasoconstrictor may be helpful in restoring vascular tone and blood pressure, provided that there is no contraindication to its use. Intravenous calcium gluconate may be beneficial in reversing the effects of calcium channel blockade.
Gastric lavage may be worthwhile in some cases. In healthy volunteers the use of charcoal up to 2 hours after administration of amlodipine 10 mg has been shown to reduce the absorption rate of amlodipine.
Since amlodipine is highly protein-bound, dialysis is not likely to be of benefit.
The bioavailability of amlodipine is not affected by food intake.
The terminal plasma elimination half-life is about 35-50 hours and is consistent with once daily dosing. Amlodipine is extensively metabolised by the liver to inactive metabolites with 10% of the parent compound and 60% of metabolites excreted in the urine.
Very limited clinical data are available regarding amlodipine administration in patients with hepatic impairment. Patients with hepatic insufficiency have decreased clearance of amlodipine resulting in a longer half-life and an increase in AUC of approximately 40-60%.
The time to reach peak plasma concentrations of amlodipine is similar in elderly and younger subjects. Amlodipine clearance tends to be decreased with resulting increases in AUC and elimination half-life in elderly patients. Increases in AUC and elimination half-life in patients with congestive heart failure were as expected for the patient age group studied.
A population PK study has been conducted in 74 hypertensive children aged from 1 to 17 years (with 34 patients aged 6 to 12 years and 28 patients aged 13 to 17 years) receiving amlodipine between 1.25 and 20 mg given either once or twice daily. In children 6 to 12 years and in adolescents 13-17 years of age the typical oral clearance (CL/F) was 22.5 and 27.4 L/hr respectively in males and 16.4 and 21.3 L/hr respectively in females. Large variability in exposure between individuals was observed. Data reported in children below 6 years is limited.
Reproductive studies in rats and mice have shown delayed date of delivery, prolonged duration of labour and decreased pup survival at dosages approximately 50 times greater than the maximum recommended dosage for humans based on mg/kg.
Impairment of fertility
There was no effect on the fertility of rats treated with amlodipine (males for 64 days and females 14 days prior to mating) at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (8 times* the maximum recommended human dose of 10 mg on a mg/m2 basis). In another rat study in which male rats were treated with amlodipine besilate for 30 days at a dose comparable with the human dose based on mg/kg, decreased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone were found as well as decreases in sperm density and in the number of mature spermatids and Sertoli cells.
Rats and mice treated with amlodipine in the diet for two years, at concentrations calculated to provide daily dosage levels of 0.5, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg/day showed no evidence of carcinogenicity. The highest dose (for mice, similar to, and for rats twice* the maximum recommended clinical dose of 10 mg on a mg/m2 basis) was close to the maximum tolerated dose for mice but not for rats.
Mutagenicity studies revealed no drug related effects at either the gene or chromosome levels.
*Based on patient weight of 50 kg.
3 blister packets with 10 tablets in each with insert leaflet in the cardboard box.
Store at temperature not higher than 250C, out of the reach of children, in original pack.
Any unused products and waste materials should be disposed of in accordance with local regulations.